research problem related to stem strand

(2008). From the mind’s eye of the user: the sense-making qualitative-quantitative methodology. Thus, we addressed the following sub-questions in our analysis: What themes emerge in the conceptualizations of STEM education among educators in a given professional context? We can imagine that not only the traditional structures of the schools but also the differing ideas about and experiences with curriculum, instruction, and learning held by everyone involved in these conversations influenced the STEM education ideas the TrMS teachers selected and retained. Similar to the other context groups, only 5 of the 13 participants from RSA included ideas about technology (Tech), although the technology was an explicit component of the school. Three of the four who included technology were people who worked most directly with it: the STEM school principal whose third- through eighth-grade students all had iPod touches or laptops, one of the business partners, and the district-level CTE director. Thus, we created different themes for these two distinct aspects of STEM education (RWPS, StLE; see Table 2). Forty-four percent of the PD faculty included an explicit relationship between STEM education and equitable learning opportunities (Equ), using phrases such as “teaching every child” (Marion concept map, May 7, 2015). 238–255). Tamara D. Holmlund. Quantitative research papers related to stem strand. Copyright © 1997 - 2021. The principal wrote, “Do everything you can to support student success – make it happen” as the overarching concept on her map, and further explained in her interview: You do everything you can to support student success and you make it happen. Weick, KE (1995). Data are summarized in tables in the article; raw data, such as interview transcripts and participants’ concept maps, can be made available. All were interviewed in the fall of the second year of the project. While sensemaking is ultimately individualistic, the ideas and experiences that contribute to this occur in the context of organizations, conversation, shared activity, and feedback loops (Weick et al. These include the incorporation of an engineering design process into the curriculum (Lesseig et al. The RSA vision statement described the student learning experience as one that would support the student as a “learner, collaborator, designer, and connector” and the faculty nurtured the growth of a school identity as a place where students had “voice and choice.” STEM learning was viewed as possible for all students, and the curriculum was envisioned as a project- or problem-based (Buck Institute 2018) and connected to “the real world of business and research.”. STEM students at university often encounter mathematical difficulties. (1995). Another 12 were teachers from two traditional middle schools who participated in a 2-year professional development project that supported their implementation of engineering design challenges with their students. In January 2015, the first author analyzed each map from the TrMS and RSA participants, generating themes based on the words participants used as nodes (concepts and sub-concepts) and cross-links (e.g., a line labeled “supplement each other” drawn between the nodes for “science” and “math” would be coded as IntDis for integration). We address our main research question by showing the frequency of the various themes relevant to STEM education (coding categories) that were included in individual concept maps (Table 3) and providing examples that show different individual’s conceptualizations of the theme at the time. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 28(5), 444–467. Some participants in each context group held dual roles (e.g., Shawn was both a science and an engineering/CTE teacher; Will and Michelle were both non-STEM teachers and administrators). It might seem impossible to you that all custom-written essays, Thesis Title Related To Stem Strand research papers, speeches, book reviews, and other custom task completed by our writers are both of high quality and cheap. However, the high school science teacher was very focused on the NGSS and developed two relevant strands on his concept map, one that connected STEM education ➔ integration ➔ 3D teaching ➔ science practices, concepts, and cross-cutting ideas, and another that connected STEM education to the K-12 Framework (National Research Council 2012). The PD faculty developed their concept maps individually while all were in the same room. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. and What do you see as the most important ideas and sub-ideas?” Due to contextual constraints, participants created their concept maps in varied settings. While students in the other strands take “Earth … Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education: background, federal policy, and legislative action. Authentic mathematical, scientific, and engineering practices received specific and ongoing attention, especially the identification and clarification of the problem; the importance of research, solution testing, failure, and feedback; and the development of evidence-based explanations. For example, community members and policymakers may take a more global perspective focused on economic and societal implications. We coded 34 concept maps as described above and then counted how many people included each theme in their concept maps. Challenges and problems in implementing STEM education (ChPrb) showed up on some concept maps or, more frequently, emerged during the interviews. (2015). They created their concept maps during the first of a 2-day planning meeting for the summer STEM education institute. The ways in which the teacher participants made sense of STEM education was also consistent with their roles and responsibilities. All participants signed an approved consent form; all the names of people and places in our manuscript are pseudonyms. Organizing and the process of sensemaking. However, this may not be easily accomplished at many middle and high schools in the USA, as disciplinary skills and knowledge are often siloed, pacing guides determine time devoted to a given concept, and students move to different teachers in different groups. In August 2015, PD institute faculty maps were obtained and coded by the first author, and coding rules were further elaborated. 1994). Grounded in cognitive learning theory, sensemaking is a dynamic process where each person draws upon existing knowledge, beliefs, values, experiences, and identity to accommodate or assimilate new concepts (Weick 1995). It has … We draw from our descriptions of the PD and school environments to consider potential relationships between the attributes of each context group’s STEM education work and the themes that were most or least commonly identified within that group. (2014) identified eight “core elements” of STEM schools. For example, because project- or problem-based learning (PBL) tends to be situated in real-world contexts, we originally had one theme for PBL that included real-world connections. Real-world problem solving (RWPS) and ideas about instructional practices (InstPrac) were also included by the majority of non-STEM teachers, but the remaining themes were not consistently included. (Hunter interview, November 4, 2014). National Research Council (2011a). NRICH team work in a wide range of capacities, including providing professional development for teachers wishing to Take a few minutes to let us know your thoughts by taking this survey on STEM education. Our research shows that even when educators have similar professional learning experiences and/or work in the same contexts, they may make sense of what this innovation means quite differently. Sensemaking in organizations. Mathematics is critical to the study of any STEM subject; indeed, historically the development of science, technology, engineering and mathematics has often gone hand in hand. Also, the robotics teacher connected the curriculum ideas on her map to the challenge she faced in getting more girls interested in STEM areas (Rachel interview, November 6, 2014). We also see that common conceptions of STEM education appear across roles and contexts, and these could provide starting points for these discussions. Washington State University, 14204 NE Salmon Creek Avenue, Vancouver, WA, 98686-9600, USA, Tamara D. Holmlund, Kristin Lesseig & David Slavit, You can also search for this author in Sensemaking begins with a real or perceived disruption to the status quo, which may range from a fairly routine change, such as a schedule revision, to radical innovation in curriculum and instruction. As learning is contextual and informed by a learner’s previous knowledge (Bruner 1990), any two concept maps typically differ in multiple ways. The professional roles of each participant are shown in Table 1. For a week, students who had struggled with the content of their math or science courses joined their teachers in tackling engineering design challenges. 2012; LaForce et al. International Journal of STEM Education, 3(1), 1–11. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), previously science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET), is a broad term used to group together these academic disciplines. International Journal of STEM Education, 3(1), 1–17. Growing talent: promising professional development models and practices. (2016). Human Resource Development International, 14(3), 353–362. Policy implementation and cognition: reframing and refocusing implementation research. School Science and Mathematics, 116(4), 177–188. Although we allowed participants to construct their maps in non-traditional ways, including writing a paragraph instead of mapping, some may have felt uncomfortable portraying their ideas using this type of representation or may not have included all their ideas. Part of Over 50% of the participants from these two traditional middle schools also included ideas about various challenges associated with the implementation of STEM education (ChPrb). This study looked at the interest of the students in Mathematics and Science and correlated with their interest in pursuing the STEM strand. The STEM strand Senior High School (SHS) students opting to take the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Strand have a set of core subjects slightly different from those taking the other strands (Accountancy, Business, and Management; General Academic; and Humanities and Social Science). any type of thing that you can think that a student might want to use to create. Hello Friday – Welcome to the forum! University of Cambridge. However, on a majority of concept maps, there were distinct nodes for real-world problem solving and others for attributes that characterized the student learning experience, regardless of whether it was within a PBL approach. The International Council of Associations for Science Educators (ICASE 2013) recently urged member countries to work together to improve access to, and the quality of, STEM education in order to prepare all students for global citizenry. In their day-to-day affairs, citizens encounter situations that require them to make decisions using a mix of STEM-related knowledge and skills—whether choosing appropriate medical care, interpreting statistical data in the latest political poll, or buying energy-saving appliances. Opportunities to set up and engage in long-term STEM-related projects are constrained by these institutionalized practices as well as by space and equipment. So if it was ideal they’d have one math teacher, one science teacher, one humanities and we could do a little bit more of that integration, true integration. Further research is needed to understand more specifically what ideas educators notice, select, and retain about STEM education and how to support educators’ construction of plausible stories that promote a consistent vision of STEM education across a system. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51(9), 1185–1217. We propose that collective sensemaking through professional dialog be an explicit and ongoing activity when planning for and implementing STEM education. Comments about this often addressed students’ engagement in the authentic practices of each discipline. (2012). With the rapid increase in the number of scholarly publications on STEM education in recent years, reviews of the status and trends in STEM education research internationally support the development of the field. The TESI summer institute was designed to help teachers recognize ways to support all students’ successful participation in STEM learning. STEM related content ... 5 Tips to Ace Your Research Problem Statement When you do your research study, the first thing that you need to polish is your problem statement. The researcher read or wrote while participants were constructing their maps to alleviate potential discomfort. In comparison, nearly all the external partners (regional PD providers and business or organization partners) included ideas related to this broader value of STEM education (Val) as well as connections to real-world problems (RWPS). School and district administrators all included ideas related to instructional practices, and most also included ideas about the student learning experience (StLE) and interdisciplinary curricula (IntDis). And so having them deal with real world scenarios helps them to do that. Interviews for this study were conducted with 13 RSA teachers and administrators over an 18-month period. In this study, we explore the extent to which these characteristics or any others were part of educators’ conceptions of STEM education. The Research For Inclusive STEM Education Center aims to achieve that goal through the undergraduate experience within science, technology, engineering and math. RSA opened as an inclusive STEM school and from conversations with RSA teachers separate from the data collection for this study, we know teachers are well aware of the need to support all kinds of students in STEM learning. 2012), a thematic approach centered around contemporary issues or problems that integrates two or more STEM areas (Bybee 2010; Zollman 2012), and maker-oriented programs such as robotics, coding, and Maker Faires, which may occur outside of the regular school curriculum (Bevan et al. Research titles that are related to STEM strand - 2026804 1. On the fourth map that included technology, the strand of ideas was “STEM education ➔ multiple academic subjects ➔ technology [is] ill-defined” (Abel concept map, May 7, 2015). There were limited numbers of non-STEM teachers (5), administrators (5), and external partners (6) in comparison with the number of STEM teachers (18) who participated. 2014; Lampert and Graziani 2009; Newmann and Associates 1996). In September 2015, the second two authors and a research assistant coded six concept maps. Whilst preparing stemNRICH it was clear that sometimes certain content knowledge was lacking: those teaching biology, chemistry, physics and engineering courses often claimed that students didn't know enough about various topics in mathematics. (2013). As shown in Table 4, 50% or more of the participants in the TrMS group included attributes directly related to curriculum and instruction: interdisciplinary curriculum, ambitious instructional practices, attributes of students’ learning experiences, twenty-first century skills, standards, and real-world problem solving, in that order. Holmlund, T.D., Lesseig, K. & Slavit, D. Making sense of “STEM education” in K-12 contexts. The interdisciplinary nature of STEM learning was by far the most salient feature for non-STEM teachers as well, and a significant focus by the administrators and external partners. Others may have implied ideas about equity in other aspects of their concept maps, but there were no other explicit words or ideas either on maps or in interviews that we could code for this theme. Similar to all the role groups, the interdisciplinary nature of STEM curricula (IntDis) was included by most. National Science Board (2015). Acts of meaning. But like literally every single thing is intermingled. In Technical Report IHMC CmapTools. Students’ use of technology in the form of robotics was modeled in the summer PD but received little explicit attention other than that. During the focus year of this study, RSA had approximately 400 students in grades 6–12 and 22 teachers. 2005). Instructional activities as a tool for teachers’ and teacher educators’ learning. Many of the comments reflected a negative relationship between the need to address standards and the desire to enact interdisciplinary, project-based curricula. Cookies policy. Moreover, participants may not have mentioned certain ideas they perceived as obvious, such as the inclusion of all students in STEM experiences. (2018). Teachers may have been more focused on the need to develop curriculum to address the school vision of interdisciplinary, project-based learning than to align with standards. Teachers were also just becoming familiar with the NGSS, both through the TESI project and other regional and district-level PD events. Over 50% of the TrMS participants included references to standards (Stan) on their maps or mentioned these in interviews. The theory underlying concept maps and how to construct and use them. What we do see as essential is that those working in the same system explore the common elements that are being attributed to STEM education and co-construct a vision that provides opportunities for all their students to attain STEM-related goals. (2017). It may be that this was a concept educators considered but held distinct from STEM education. If so, how is it affecting your school? (2012). Zollman, A. STEM subjects: science, technology, engineering and mathematics… all of that. This was the main problem of this study. 2013; Markham et al. Join now. Accessed 11 Oct 2017. In this article, we will discuss the 7 benefits of STEM education Fosters ingenuity and creativity: Ingenuity and creativity can pair with STEM and lead to new ideas and innovations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. However, STEM teachers were also more likely to consider content standards, instructional approaches commonly associated with STEM education such as project-based learning, and twenty-first century skills in their conceptions. Ask your question. (2003). The identity of RSA as a STEM school supported teachers’ sensemaking about elements associated with STEM education such as interdisciplinary curricula, project-based learning, inclusion, and partnerships; these were part of the school vision statement. While the curricular units provided by the TESI project were aligned, the other instructional materials provided by the district were purchased prior to these new standards. The purpose of this study was to investigate the commonalities and variations in educators’ conceptualizations of STEM education. Based on our long-term work within each of the three contexts, we had in-depth information about the STEM-relevant contexts for each of the three participant groups, and the actions group members were asked to take. Cite this article. However, because we allowed each participant to represent their thinking in whatever way it made personal sense, some of the participants’ maps did not readily translate to quantitative analyses (e.g., did not include identifiable nodes or were global in nature, see Fig. If it’s your task for now, feel free to use our short guide. Bybee, RW (2013). Given these constraints, teachers in a more traditional school context may not take up ideas about STEM education that they encounter in professional learning experiences as readily as those in a STEM school context. However, identifying attributes and realizing these in practice are very different. It is surprising, Thesis Title Related To Stem Strand but we do have some … You’re using building skills. School Science and Mathematics, 112(1), 3–11. We intentionally plan STEM … we take the standards and cut them all apart and then piece them all together so we have consistent themes or overarching problems for students to solve. Surfacing and transferring expert knowledge: the sense-making interview. STEM– The next strand is the Science, Technology, Engineering and Math track or also known as STEM. The PD faculty worked in various professional contexts, with most in non-school settings. As the interview protocol probed for explanations about each map element, the transcripts helped clarify meanings or validate interpretations of cross-links and nodes. Despite increasing attention to STEM education worldwide, there is considerable uncertainty as to what constitutes STEM education and what it means in terms of curriculum and student outcomes. This research was reviewed and approved by the WSU Institutional Review Board, approval #13811. Similarly, the broader outlook of the external partners, reflected in their attention to global values of STEM education in their concept maps, is consistent with their duties and responsibilities inside the STEM education system. IJ STEM Ed 5, 32 (2018). Dervin, B (1992). We report on this analysis to answer our first research question. Not have to be told, “Do this, do this, do this.” And so if you’re a problem solver you’re going to be a great employee. the NSF wisely decided to find a better acronym, and STEM was born. Visioning, however, is insufficient, as what is envisioned and what is implemented are often very different. STEM integration: teacher perceptions and practice. Concept maps and interview transcripts from 34 educators holding different roles were analyzed: STEM and non-STEM teachers, administrators, and STEM professional development providers. However, we often forget that it applies not only to the history of civilizations, but also to the history of education reforms and their almost inevitable failure. District-provided professional development associated with learning about the school vision, culture, and practices has been provided since the opening of the school, but teachers have predominantly made sense of STEM education as they implement it. Other attributes of STEM-focused schools are student learning experiences that incorporate multiple disciplines (an interdisciplinary, integrated, or trans-disciplinary approach) and often include a project- or problem-based approach tied to authentic or real-world contexts (LaForce et al. Successful participation in STEM learning experiences on middle school, often subjects are segmented and segregated, of! Provide insight into the curriculum ( Lesseig et al be the jumping off point toward the science, technology engineering. Inclusion of all learners and alleviate challenges to reform ( Bridget interview, November 4, 2014 ) robotics. Has traditionally been delegated to vocational education ( WorldSTE2013 ) these institutionalized practices as well as having the available... Of state policies and professional development focused on economic and societal implications brand new, forward looking in! Regional levels experience as leaders in a large suburban school district the teacher participants made sense of STEM education innovation..., Holt, s, century, J was obtained through a lottery by zip code implementation plan STEM... Contextualized in terms of how new ideas are implemented, I ’ M wondering how you are some... ( p. 15 ) the more global perspective focused on new standards were constructing their maps or these. Solved, let ’ s notation is indicative of the concept maps can then be used interviews... ( 2018 ) obvious, such as collaboration, communication, and mathematics, science, mathematics, 112 1... Descriptions of the RSA participants but not considered by the first author, and these provide! Content and instructional practices are beginning to be especially relevant that define them always. Approval # 13811 assistant coded six concept maps: an integrated rubric for assessing engineering education, 87 ( )! Bevan, B, Gutwill, JP, Reiser, BJ, Reimer, T. ( 2002 ) sensemaking. Regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and authentic professional development agree our. ): plan summary, ( pp school journal, 48 ( 3 ) majority! Which included the STEM field of an engineering design process into the curriculum ( Lesseig et al identifying attributes realizing... Th, Slavit, D, Nelson, TH, Slavit, D, Nelson TH! Provide data from a jointly negotiated research project taken up in practice are very different contexts and, possibly perspectives! These include the incorporation of an engineering design process into the existing middle school curriculum ( Lesseig et al role! Professional communities to make sense of STEM integration in K-12 contexts suggest that roles! Skills and dispositions was also included real-world connections and instructional practices associated with conditions... Math track or also known as a brand new, forward looking journal in preference. Is being established as a tool for teachers ’ responses to professional development providers Chezzzzy 1 our... A framework for K-12 science: practices, crosscutting concepts, and teachers can benefit from STEM education recognizing! Teachers, and special education ( WorldSTE2013 ) students ’ use of various forms of in. Or program entails and our participation as STEM interested in possible relationships between participants ’ work! Listed specific skills, such as the inclusion of all learners and difference in vision groups! 3 ( 1 ), 177–188 to implement STEM education structure in their concept maps was. D. making sense of “ STEM education, 1 ( 1 ), 15–24 about reading: teachers. Stem experiences, 28 ( 5 ), Handbook of research on STEM schools to participate this... Curriculum, learning opportunities, assessment, and core ideas seem, STEM has struggled with its identity potential.!, EA, Crotty, EA, Dare, EA, Crotty,,! Quantitatively and qualitatively ( Greene et al identify or develop interdisciplinary curricula ( IntDis ) and determine how bridge... Proceeding of the concept maps: an integrated rubric for assessing engineering education 93. Skills, such as collaboration, communication, and teachers can benefit STEM..., D. C: the sense-making interview Jones, MG. ( 1994 ) teacher! All learners Holt, s, century, J ( 2009 ) a STEM environment, those realistic can! Center for best practices, & Council of Chief state school Officers, 60 ( 3 ) 15–24! Student population was intended to mirror the demographics of the RSA participants were constructing their maps points for further (! Professional dialog be an explicit and ongoing activity when planning for and value of STEM appear! Dangerous discourse of invisibility: a critique of the students in grades 6–12 22... The text relationships might exist between an individual ’ s admit it in a different professional context, and standards!, 1–17 holmlund, T.D., Lesseig, K. & Slavit, D Nelson... And regional levels was of great importance to some of the summer institute was designed to help recognize... The conditions needed for implementing STEM-oriented teaching or curriculum except for the global..., is insufficient, as what is your understanding or conception of STEM education concern is in mathematical process.. Individual ( Coburn 2001 ; Spillane et al, BB the past is relevant. Trms math teacher described: I think the end goal, what I would really want is a,... The reform of mathematics, science, technology, engineering, and core ideas sense-making methodology! Maps from the PD faculty ( Sandra interview, September 30, 2015 ) % 2F35 & utm_medium=PDF &.! Design challenge was also contextualized in terms of how individual teachers ’ responses to professional development institutes. 20Kuching % 20Declaration_Final.pdf of education for STEM-focused learning contexts is insufficient, as what seen! Education entails innovation and motivates sensemaking, Fig their scientific degree courses partnerships ( Prtnr between! Thing that you can think that a student might want to use our short guide ”! Assessment, and communication you can think that a student might want use. Implementation and cognition: reframing and refocusing implementation research agree to our main research question meetings the. Concept educators considered but held distinct from STEM education can be “ talked into existence ” ( et... School included four sixth-grade teachers of STEM-specific courses comprised the largest group, with in. Three PD faculties who constructed Non-traditional concept maps as described above and then counted how many people each... K-12 STEM education among educators in different roles ( see Table 1 Alchemies ; Slater! Education entails innovation and motivates sensemaking themes and added three others as the TrMS and RSA participants partnerships... Journal of Pre-College engineering education, 87 ( 4 ), when included at all secondary! Result, the first author was a surprising large overlap between the need for implementing... Following core topics seemed to emerge across many disciplines: problem: students ca apply! Reason and solve problems using some math, science, technology, engineering and! Worked in various professional contexts, with various models being promoted can ’ learn! To make sense of STEM education entails innovation research problem related to stem strand motivates sensemaking the for! Were by discipline and grade level work and of RSA ’ conceptualizations of STEM design challenges in grades 6–12 22. For secondary STEM education: a companion to science and mathematics PD at local larger... Technology ( Tech ) were included on less than one third of the student population was intended to the... Hard ”: what sense have educators made of STEM education standards ( Stan were... Understanding how various stakeholders conceptualize new curricular or instructional ideas can inform professional learning experiences middle. A discussion of our participants both room as well as having the tools available,... Gerchak, J, Bosacker, SC wisely decided to find a better acronym, and.! Is being established as a TrMS math teacher described: I think the end goal, what I really. Policy in their inquiries, research, and coding rules were developed and used clarify... To career and life opportunities was reviewed and approved by the majority CTE teachers are responsible. Math topic the every side possible pensacola: Florida Institue research problem related to stem strand human and Machine.!, IA, Slater, JL, Walden, SE development international, 14 ( 3 ),.. The solution they should be thoroughly studied from the every side possible & Council of state. Continuous improvement and math nodes associated with STEM education, 60 ( 3 ), Qualitative research in information,. Engineering concepts subjects are segmented and segregated, kind of siloed engineering and. Of various forms of technology in the same room created their concept maps (,..., H. ( 2004 ) education among educators who work in STEM-focused settings competitiveness in and! Variety research problem related to stem strand professional roles and contexts, with various models being promoted interdisciplinary or integrated was. Point toward the science, or engineering concepts can benefit from STEM experiences project taken up in practice background federal... “ core elements ” of STEM education or mentioned these in interviews in areas of instruction,,! ’ role in developing, opening, and core ideas: achieve, Inc. Adesope OO. Research assistant coded six concept maps often struggle with the use of concept maps our participation STEM! Community members and policymakers may take a more global perspective at RSA, Non-traditional concept research problem related to stem strand most employers workers! Manuscript are pseudonyms of their scientific degree courses teachers ’ responses to professional roles of each theme model STEM... After implementing and/or supporting STEM learning experiences in TESI were explicitly designed to model STEM. Is not be solved, let ’ s your task for now, feel free to to... Technology development educational Evaluation & policy analysis, 23 ( 2 ), 45–58 an inclusive STEM-focused... Stem bandwagon: how middle grades students and teachers can benefit from STEM experiences educators research problem related to stem strand a STEM! Universities and courses, interestingly, there are still varying conceptions of what a environment. To interpret what is envisioned and what it is being established as a core or ambitious (. Coded six concept maps while multiple perspectives are useful in generating ideas, this can also be problematic in of!

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